Resources

Screening Tools

Multidimensional Tools

STarTBack

The SBT is a nine-item measure used to identify subgroups of patients associated with different levels of risk for persistent LBP-related disability based on the presence of modifiable prognostic factors which may be useful in matching patients with targeted interventions

Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire Short Form

The OMPSQ was originally developed to assist primary care practitioners in identifying psychosocial ‘yellow flags’ and patients at risk for future work disability due to pain. A 10-item short-form OMPSQ has been shown to have similar properties to the long version.

Unidimensional Tools

Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionairre

The FABQ assesses the degree of fear-avoidance beliefs specific to LBP and has modified versions have been used for other body regions.

Pain Catastrophizing Scale

The PCS assesses the degree of exaggerated negative orientation toward actual or anticipated pain experiences and catastrophic cognitions due to musculoskeletal pain. The PCS consists of 13 items with a potential score range from 0 to 52, with higher scores indicating higher levels of pain catastrophizing

Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-11)

The TSK-11 assesses the degree of fear of movement and injury or re-injury. The TSK-11 consists of 11 items with a potential score range from 11 to 44, with higher scores indicating greater fear of movement and increased injury or re-injury due to painful symptoms.

Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale (PASS-20)

The PASS-20 assesses the degree of pain-related anxiety symptoms for individuals with pain disorders . The PASS-20 consists of 20 items with a potential score range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating elevated symptoms of pain-related anxiety

Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)

The PHQ-9 assesses the degree of depressive symptoms. The PHQ-9 consists of nine items with a potential score range from 0 to 27, with higher scores indicating elevated depressive symptoms.

Patient Self Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ)

The PSEQ assesses the degree of self-efficacy beliefs in the context of pain that can be either low or high. The PSEQ consists of 10 items with a potential score range from 0 to 60, with higher scores indicating elevated levels of pain-related self-efficacy, which is a positive prognostic indicator.

Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ)

The CPAQ assesses the degree of pain acceptance from a functional perspective by focusing on behavioral aspects. The CPAQ consists of 20 items with a potential score range from 0 to 120, with higher scores indicating an increased level of pain acceptance, also a positive prognostic indicator.

Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ)

The Brief IPQ assesses cognitive and emotional representations of illness. The Brief IPQ consists of nine items rated using a 0–10 scale, except for the causal question. Five of the items assess cognitive illness representations: consequences (item 1), timeline (item 2), personal control (item 3), treatment control (item 4) and identity (item 5). Two of the items assess emotional representations: concern (item 6) and emotions (item 8). One item assesses illness comprehensibility (item 7). An open-ended response is provided so that patients are able to list the three most important causal factors of their illness (item 9).

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